3D seismic data interpretation:
- Processing techniques
- Manual 2D/3D interpretation (local/regional scale)
- 3D auto-tracking
- Stratigraphic reflectors and faults
- Intra-salt reflectors (stringers)
- Structural and sedimentological features under- and overburden
- Seismic and well data correlation
- Visualization techniques (2D, 3D, movies)
|2D manual interpretation of major overburden features, Top Salt (well data), intra-salt stringer, Base salt and underburden features for seeding the 3D auto-tracking. The connectivity of the stringer defines the density of the manually intepreted point cloud.
If the stringer is highly connected, we skip this and move on to 3D auot hunting.
|Seeded 3D auto-tracking of highly connected parts of intra-salt stringers. Stacking of stringer fragments lead to the "double-z problem" (horizon tracker does not allow for double-z values), and additional horizons are implemented.
|The 3D view reveals the very complex stringer geometry and superimposed structures -> manual interpretation for seeding the auto-tracker is required.
|Amplitude cut-offs used to highlight the top stringer reflector. This visualization also enables a faster stringer auto-tracking. However, the stringer is often not connected (i.e., seimsically not imaged) and manual tracking of each single fragement is required.
In case of many smaller, highly offset stringer fragments, careful interpretation is required. Missing fragements can lead to strong differences in the structural interpretation of stringer parts.
|Integration of well data in 2D and 3D to identify and implement (not imaged) Top Salt, not imaged stringer occurences (e.g., thin and steep fold limps) and Potassium-salts ("squeezing salts").
|Large-scale, 3D, interpolated interpretation of an intra-salt stringer and Top Salt mesh Dutch onshore. We use different interpolation algorythms to highlight and test possible structural models for the intra-salt.
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An Integrated, Multi-scale Approach to Salt Dynamics and Internal Dynamics of Salt Structures. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #40703, February 25, 2011, 87 pages. (2011)
The internal geometry of salt structures - a first look using 3D seismic data from the Zechstein of the Netherlands. Journal of Structural Geology - Special Issue: Flow of rocks: Field analysis and modeling - In celebration of Paul F. Williams' contribution to mentoring 33, 292-311. (2011)
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Subsurface seismic record of salt glaciers in an extensional intracontinental setting. Geology, 35(11),963-966 (2007)
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Internal Dynamics of salt structures. Alpine Salt 2011: A workshop on Alpine Evaporites, Salzburg, Austria. 31 March. Invited Talk (2011)
Seismic interpretation of the internal geometry of the Zechstein evaporites - Large scale structures and internal stability. EGU General Assembly. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, pp. EGU2011-2265. Room 22 / Wed, 06 Apr, 13:30-17:00, / Room 22 / Wed, 06 Apr, 13:30-17:00. (2011)
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The internal geometry of the Zechstein - Seismic interpretation of coeval extension and compression. GeoDarmstadt 2010, Darmstadt, Germany, 10-13 October 2010, Hoppe, Röhling, Schütz (eds) Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, v (2010)
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The 3D geometry of the Zechstein Z3 carbonate/anhydrite member: implications for the study of salt structures and hydro-carbon production. AGU 90, Fall Meet. (2009)
The 3D Geometry of the Zechstein Z3 Carbonate/Anhydrite Member: Implications for Salt Dynamics and Hydrocarbon Production. AAPG International Conference & Exhibition, Cape Town, South Africa, October 26-29, 2008. (2008)