Sandbox experiments

 
Sandbox modeling has been used extensively over the last decades to study the structural evolution to model shallow geological processes. We use two special types of sandboxes to study two exceptional structural settings.

Picture_863 - BLUEENDOARROW Underwater sandbox

Picture_162 - Underwatersandbox
Orginal file by Joyce Schmatz Experiment by Joyce Scmatz

The underwater sandbox, is a sandbox build inside an aquarium, which we can use to study clay smearing processes.

Picture_863 - BLUEENDOARROW Brittle powders

Experiment by Heijn van Gent Experiment by Heijn van Gent

In general, sand is often used for structural modeling. This material however does not allow the formation of open fractures. Gypsum powder has a true cohesion and tensile strength, allowing dilatant fractures and faults to form.



Experiment by Michael Ketterman

Combining this cohesive powder with liquids, such as honey, we can model the formation of single-ductile layer boudins (from the BSc.-thesis of M. Ketterman).

Picture_863 - BLUEENDOARROW PIV analysis

We use the comercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) software Davis from LaVision to analyze strains and rotations in our experiments





Pictures

 

Underwatersandbox

Joyce sandbox sketch...

Joyce sandbox sketch...

Joyce sandbox broken...
 

Publications

 

Theses

Michael Kettermann
The effect of preexisting joints on normal fault evolution : insights from fieldwork and analogue modeling. MSc thesis, supervised by Janos Urai, Heijn van Gent and Christoph Grützner (2011)
 
Marc Holland
Aspects of faulting and fracturing in brittle lithologies. PHD-thesis RWTH. 168 pages. (2009)
 
Joyce Schmatz
Experimental study on clay gouge evolution in mechanically stratified sequences. Diplomarbeit, RWTH Aachen University. (2006)
 
Heijn van Gent
Scaled analogue models of normal faulting in brittle lithologies, MSc-thesis, Geologie - Endogene Dynamik, RWTH Aachen University & Faculty of Earthsciences, University of Utrecht. (2005)
 
Marc Holland
Structure of fault zones in cohesive volcanic sequences. Diplomthesis. Geologie - Endogene Dynamik. (2004)
 

Nonreviewed

Heijn van Gent, Janos Urai, Marc Holland, Wanningen Erik
Sealing of Faults and Fractures by Clay Sediment on Jebel Hafeet - Field Observations and Modeling. Al Hajar, FEB2010 (16), 16-18. (2010)
 
Heijn van Gent, Marc Holland, Janos Urai
Open fractures in Sandbox experiments. In: Dynamics of complex intracontinental basins: The Central European Basin System. Littke, R., Bayer, U., Gajewski, D. & Nelskamp, S. (Eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin-heidelberg, 520p. (2008)
 

Papers

Gisa J. Kleine Vennekate, Sofie Nollet, Janos Urai
Influence of the dilatency angle on strucutral patterns in numerical sandbox experiments. Journal of Structural Geology. submitted (In press)
 
Marc Holland, Heijn van Gent, Loic Bazalgette, Najwa Yassir, Eilard Hoogerduijn-Strating, Janos Urai
Evolution of dilatant fracture networks in normal faults - evidence from 4D model experiments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 304: 399-406. (2011)
 
Steffen Abe, Heijn van Gent, Janos Urai
DEM Simulation of Normal Faults in cohesive Materials, Tectonophysics 512, 12-21. (2011)
 
Heijn van Gent, Marc Holland, Janos Urai, Ramon Loosveld
Evolution of fault zones in carbonates with mechanical stratigraphy - insights from scale models using layered cohesive powder. Journal of Structural Geology, Volume 32, Issue 9, Pages 1375-1391 (2010)
 
Joyce Schmatz, Peter Vrolijk, Janos Urai
Clay smear in normal fault zones - the effect of multilayers and clay cementation in water-saturated model experiments Journal of Structural Geology 32 - Fault zones (11), 1834-1849. (2010)
 
Marc Holland, Janos Urai, Stephen Martel
The internal structure of fault zones in basaltic sequences. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248(1-2),301 (2006)
 
J. Adam, Janos Urai, B. Wieneke, O. Oncken, K. Pfeiffer, N. Kukowski, J. Lohrmann, S. Hoth, Wouter van der Zee, Joyce Schmatz
Shear localisation and strain distribution during tectonic faulting - new insights from granular flow experiments and high-resolution optical image correlation techniques. Journal of Structural Geology, 27,283-301 (2005)
 

Abstracts

Michael Kettermann, Sohrab Noorsalehi-Garakani, Heijn van Gent, Steffen Abe, Janos Urai, Marc Holland
Modeling of dilatant fractures in homogenous, cohesive material and in the presence of preexisting fractures. EGU General Assembly. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, pp. EGU2011-13519-1. Room 28 / Mon, 04 Apr, 11:15-11:30, oral. (2011)
 
Heijn van Gent, Steffen Abe, Janos Urai, Marc Holland
The formation of open fractures in brittle rocks and the evolution of permeability with fault slip- results from analogue and numerical models. EGU General Assembly 2009, Vienna, Austria, 19 - 24 April 2009, 11. (2009)
 
Steffen Abe, Janos Urai, Joyce Schmatz
DEM Simulation of Clay Smear along Faults. EGU General Assembly 2009, Vienna, Austria, 19 - 24 April 2009, 11. (2009)
 
Steffen Abe, Joyce Schmatz, Janos Urai
DEM Simulation of shear induced mixing in layered Sand-Clay Sequences. EGU General Assembly 2008, Vienna, Austria, 10. (2008)
 
Steffen Abe, Heijn van Gent, Marc Holland
Discrete Element Simulations of the formation of open fractures during normal faulting of cohesive materials. Third International Geomodelling Conference, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Florence, Italy, September 22, 2008, (2008)
 
Steffen Abe, Heijn van Gent, Janos Urai
DEM Simulation of normal faulting in cohesive materials The 27th IUGG Conference on Mathematical Geophysics, Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, Norway, June 15 - 20, 2008, 22. (2008)
 
Steffen Abe, Heijn van Gent, Janos Urai
Discrete Element Simulation of Normal Faulting In cohesive Materials. Geo 2008; International Conference and 106th annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften e. V. (DGG) and 98th annual meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (G (2008)
 
Heijn van Gent, Steffen Abe, Janos Urai, Marc Holland
The formation of open fractures in scaled analogue and numerical experiments. Third International Geomodelling Conference, Florence, Italy, September 23, 2008, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, 49, 338-342. (2008)
 
Janos Urai, Joyce Schmatz, Steffen Abe, Heijn van Gent, Marc Holland
The Effect of mechanical stratigraphy on the evolution of transport processes in fault zones. Geo 2008; International Conference and 106th annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften e. V. (DGG) and 98th annual meeting of the Geologi (2008)
 
Martin P.J. Schöpfer, Conrad Childs, John Walsh, Steffen Abe, Arzu Arslan, Eoghan P. Holohan
Distinct Element Method (DEM) Modelling of Laboratory to Outcrop-Scale Fracturing of Natural Rocks. Joint Annual Meeting : GSA, ASA, CSSA, SSSA, GCACS, George R. Brown Convention Center, Houston, USA, 5-9 October, 129-4. (2008)
 
Heijn van Gent, Marc Holland, Janos Urai, Ramon Loosveld
The Internal Structure of Fault Zones in Carbonates Deformed at Shallow Crustal Level - Evidence From Scaled Physical Models Using Cohesive Powder. Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52),Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T23D-0531 (2006)
 
Janos Urai, Marc Holland, Joyce Schmatz, Heijn van Gent
Towards really useful physical models of tectonic deformation. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 02-07 April 8, 279. (2006)
 
Heijn van Gent, Marc Holland, Janos Urai, Ramon Loosveld
Scaled Analogue Models of the Evolution of Normal Fault Systems in Carbonates. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, 24-29 April 2005, 7, 401. (2005)
 
Marc Holland, Janos Urai, Stephen Martel
Internal Structure of Fault Zones in Mid-Oceanic-Ridges: Implications for habitat and fluid flow. AGU 2004 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3-9.12.2005, American Geophysical Union, 85 (52), V23C-08. (2004)
 
Joyce Schmatz, Marc Holland, Wouter van der Zee, Janos Urai
Fault gouge evolution in layered sand-clay sequences - first results of water-saturated sandbox experiments. Fault and Top Seals: What do we know and where do we go?, EAGE, Montpellier, France, 8-11 September 2003, O22. (2003)
 

People involved